bu konuda fikrin mi var? buraya entry ekle. üye ol
  1. 1.
    dilbilim.
    dili bir sistem olarak gören ve niteliğini, yapısını, birimlerini ve dönüşümlerini inceleyen bilim dalı.
    ... cikarinbeniburdan
  2. 2.
    dil bilimi.
    -1 ... vernon sullivan
  3. 3.
    büyük dilbilimciler:
    Karl Verner (1846-1896), Danimarkalı.
    Johannes Aavik (1880-1973), Estonyalı.
    Émile Benveniste (1902-1976), Fransız.
    Şemsettin Sami (1850-1904) Türk
    Leonard Bloomfield (1887-1949), Amerikalı.
    Franz Boas (1858-1942), Amerikalı.
    Franz Bopp (1791-1867), Alman.
    Michel Bréal (1832-1915), Fransız.
    Noam Chomsky (1928-...), Amerikalı.
    Marcel Cohen (1884-1974), Fransız.
    Antoine Culioli, Fransız.
    Oswald Ducrot (1930-...), Fransız
    Umberto Eco (1932-...), italyan.
    Pierre Fouché (1891-1967), Fransız.
    Joseph Greenberg (1914-2001), Amerikalı.
    Jacob Grimm (1785-1863), Alman.
    Reşit Rahmetî Arat (1900-1964), Türk
    Gustave Guillaume (1883-1960), Fransız.
    Claude Hagège (1936-...) Fransız.
    Péter Hajdu (1923-2002) Macar
    Michael Halliday, Avusturyalı.
    Charles Hockett (1914-20009), Amerikalı.
    Wilhelm von Humboldt (1767-1835), Alman asıllı Prusyalı.
    Roman Jakobson (1896-1982), Rus.
    Otto Jespersen (1860-1943), Danimarkalı.
    Sir William Jones (1746-1794), ingiliz.
    Sidney M. Lamb (1929-....), Amerikalı.
    Carl Richard Lepsius
    Michael Halliday, Avusturyalı.
    Samuel Ichiye Hayakawa (1906-1992), Amerikalı.
    André Martinet (1908-1999), Fransız.
    Ahmet Caferoğlu (1899-1975), Türk
    Clement Martyn Doke (1893-1980), Güney Afrikalı.
    Antoine Meillet (1866-1936), Fransız.
    Carl Meinhof (1857-1944), Alman.
    Paul Passy (1859-1940), Fransız.
    Holger Pedersen (1867-1953), Danimarkalı.
    Kenneth Pike (1912-2000), Amerikalı.
    Bernard Pottier, Fransız
    Edward Sapir (1884-1939), Ammerikalı.
    Ferdinand de Saussure (1857-1913), isviçreli.
    Aurélien Sauvageot (1897-1988), Fransız.
    August Schleicher (1821-1868), Alman.
    Lucien Tesnière (1893-1954), Fransız.
    John Ronald Reuel Tolkien (1892-1973), Güney Afrikalı.
    Joseph Vendryes (1875-1960), Fransız.
    Diedrich Westermann (1875-1956), Alman.
    Benjamin Whorf (1897-1941), Amerikalı.
    Ludwik Lejzer Zamenhof (1859-1917), Polonyalı.
    Li Fang-kuei (1902-1987), Çinli.
    Wang Li (1900-1986), Çinli.
    Bernhard Karlgren (1889-1978), isveçli.
    Jerzy Kurylowicz (1895-1979), Polonyalı
    2 ... aurore dupin
  4. 4.
    Dili oluşturan sistematik unsurları ve dilin nasıl ortaya çıkmış olabileceğini inceleyen; Phonetics, Phonology, Morphology, Syntax, Semantics, Pragmatics, Discourse Analysis gibi alt araştırma alanlarından oluşan çok kapsamlı ve önemli bir bilim dalıdır. Türkçesi dilbilim olarak önerilmiş, fakat bunun doğrusu, Türkçenin yapısı gereği dil bilimi şeklinde olmalıdır.
    1 ... enistein
  5. 5.
    hayvani derecede zordur. batı edebiyatları okuyan öğrencilere topyekün "hoşgeldin" diyebilecek dersler arasındadır. çoğu linguistik uzmanı fransızlardan çıkmıştır.
    ... la paz
  6. 6.
    1.sınıfta hazırladığım notlarımı buldum, aynen yapıştırıyorum işine yarayacak birileri çıkar mutlaka:

    Semantics

    Knowing a language means that knowing how to make and understand sentences with particular meanings. Semantics is the study of meaning in linguistics and is about the meaning of morphemes, words, phrases, sentences and discourses. We have semantic properties (redundancy rules) which help us to define the meaning of morphemes and words.

    Homonyms and Ambiguity

    We have different words which have different meanings but same pronunciations; to, too and two are example for homonyms because we pronounce these words same. The use of homonyms may result of ambiguity because the word can have more than one meaning.
    ex: She cannot bear children. :In this example the verb, bear has two meaning and the usage of this verb causes ambiguity. We can understand from this sentence that she is unable to give birth to children or she cannot tolerate children.

    Synonyms and Paraphrases

    In the rule of Homonyms we have words which have different meanings but same pronunciation but there are also words that have different pronunciation but same meaning. Although we use these words in different situations, they share same meanings and we call such words synonyms.
    For example: kill, murder, assassinate, slaughter
    Synonyms causes paraphrase. It occurs when two different sentences have same meaning.
    For examle: The girl bought a new book. A new book was bought by the girl.

    Antonyms
    The opposite of meanings are called antonyms. Like tall/short
    In antonyms we have several types:
    - complementary pairs : alive/dead awake/sleep
    - gradable pairs of antonyms big/small fast/slow
    - relational opposites buy/sell employer/employee

    Proper names which are definite and they can refer to a unique object or person.
    We have the rule of combining the meaning of parts in to the whole meaning in languages. Sentence meaning is determined in part by the thematic roles of the noun pharases to the word. The semantic relationships that we have called theme, agent and location are among the thematic roles of the verb.
    For example: My uncle brought wonderful chocolates from Switzerland to us.
    agent theme source goal

    Sense and Reference

    Another way to understand the sentence is the rule of sense and reference.
    A sentence has always sense but not reference.
    For example; Galatasaray won the UEFA Cup Championship in 1995.
    This sentence has sense because it is grammatically correct, but it has not got reference. Because of our social and historical knowledge and we know that this knowledge is wrong and Galatasaray won the Championship of UEFA Cup in 2000.

    Denotative and Connotative (metaphor) meanings.
    Denotative is the dictionary meanings of words. Connotative meanings are the meanings of associated. These meanings occur because of social meanings.

    Idioms

    I think Idioms are the different part of semantics because when the words come together and form sentences we cannot infer the meanings of individual words. The meanings are totally changes and the sentences have different meanings. We called such expressions idioms.
    For example: If it ain't broke don't fix it!
    It means; if something is okay, do not try to make it better. The whole meaning is different from the individual meanings of words.

    Maxims of Conversation
    What we are discussing must be relevance for our conclusion.

    Speech Acts: In semantics the verbs like bet, promise and warn are performative verbs.

    We always make assumptions about something or somebody about the real world that we have knowledge before. The assumptions are called presuppositions
    For example: Have you gave up smoking?
    When we ask this question, it means we have knowledge about this person before who is smoking.

    MORPHOLOGY

    Knowing a language means knowing the words of this language. When we know words of language, we also know how to make sentence by these words and their meanings which are the parts of linguistics. The study of words and internal structure of words is what we call morphology. In Morphology we have morphemes (the smallest part of grammar which has meaning), words, their pronunciation, their meanings and how they are combined. We combine the morphemes according to morphological rules of language and words are formed by morphemes.
    We have bound and free morphemes in morphology. Free morphemes can appear by its own. It has meaning by its own, but bound morphemes cannot have and cannot appear by its own. Free morphemes are the root of verbs. bound morphemes are; prefixes ( which can appear at the beginning of words), infixes ( occur in the middle of words), and suffixes (occur at the end of words).
    Example: anti + dis + establish + ment + arian + ism
    prefix infix free infix infix suffix
    morpheme root

    Derivational Morphology is the most productive part of language. When we conjoin the morphemes to other morphemes we derive a new word. It helps us to enrich our languages and to add new words to our dictionaries. We derive new words by using prefixes, infixes and suffixes. Examples: sing-er dis-like free-dom
    Inflectional Morphology has grammatical functions.
    -s swims
    -ed ended
    -en eat-en
    -ing writing etc...

    Compounds To form a new word we string words together and we call this compounding. Examples: greenpeace pickpocket sleepwalk
    Blends are also compounds but they are less than compounds.
    Examples: smoke + fog : smog
    science + fiction : scific
    croiled + roasted : Broasted

    Back formations They are words that people derice from words without conciously because of wrong pronounciation or their ignorance. This alse heps to enrich the language but I think this is wrong way. Example: peddle derived from peddler, because of mistake assumption. er was tought as a suffix.

    Abbreviations are the short forms of words. Examples: bicycle : bike
    mathematics : math doctor : doc
    Acronyms help to make the important sentences shorter by taking their first letters. forming these new short words help people to memorize and learn them easier.
    Example: UNICEF : United Naitons International Children Emergency Fund.

    These Morphological Rules are help us to enrich our languages.

    PHONOLOGY is also very important in linguistics. Phonetics are sounds of language and is a part of phonoogy because phonology is patterning of these sounds. In phonology we have assimilation rules which are very important.
    1-Harmonic Nasal Assimilation: When we use a nasal sound şn a sentence our vowel is also becames nasalized. For Example: / bon + ami /
    2-Vowel Harmony: This feature is the distinguish character of Turkish language. In our language we have vowel harmony in all our Turkish words.
    3-Metathesis occurs in many languages because of the people's pronunciation.
    Examples: ask / aks kibrit / kirbit
    4-Delection Rules: To make shorter the words.
    For example: Bir dakika [bi' dakka]

    Natural Classes
    We have so many sounds in languages. Phonological rules refer all these sounds rather than individual sounds. These sounds influence each other and all sounds have distinctive features. Also sounds are always undergoing changes. To distinguish these sounds from each other and to make groups we need natural classes. It shows us precisely what happens when we produce these particular sounds. It also shoes us how many similarities or differences that these sounds have. We group of sounds; nasal sounds ( m, n, ), stop sounds (p, b, d, t, k, g ) , fricatives ( f, v,), affricates, and liquids (l, r). Natural Class helps us to determine the group of sounds.
    3 -1 ... natylover
  7. 7.
    (bkz: dostum kopyalamışsın ama tam yapışmamış)
    1 ... berkomanyax
  8. 8.
    (bkz: ingiliz dil bilimi)
    1 ... usagi
  9. 9.
    türkçesi 'dilbilimi',osmanlıcası 'lisaniyat' olan fransızca sözcüktür.
    ... olagecgetaburdan
kapat